Equity is one of the important components of a company’s financial statements that represents ownership in the company. As equity is a critical aspect of a company’s financial health, auditors need to perform a thorough and accurate examination of equity transactions and balances to provide assurance to stakeholders that equity transactions are recorded and reported correctly.
Equity transactions are typically recorded in a company’s balance sheet under the equity section. Equity transactions include capital contributions from owners, retained earnings, and other transactions that increase or decrease a company’s ownership interests.
When it comes to accounting for equity transactions, companies are required to follow Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) guidelines.
There are several audit risks that auditors need to be aware of when auditing equity transactions and balances. Some of these risks include:
- Misclassification of equity transactions: Equity transactions may be misclassified as debt or other transactions, leading to inaccurate financial reporting.
- Improper treatment of equity transactions: Companies may not properly follow GAAP or IFRS guidelines when recording equity transactions, which can result in incorrect reporting.
- Incomplete or missing equity transactions: Companies may not record all equity transactions, or some transactions may be incomplete, which can lead to incorrect reporting.
- Misstatements in calculation of equity: Companies may make errors in the calculation of equity transactions, leading to incorrect reporting.
- Improper handling of treasury stock: Companies may not follow the proper accounting treatment for treasury stock transactions, leading to incorrect reporting.
- Improper handling of stock-based compensation: Companies may not follow the proper accounting treatment for stock-based compensation transactions, leading to incorrect reporting.
- Errors in equity reconciliation: Companies may make errors in the reconciliation of equity balances, leading to incorrect reporting.
- Misstatements in equity disclosures: Companies may provide inaccurate or incomplete disclosures related to equity transactions and balances, leading to incorrect reporting.
- Fraudulent activities: Companies may engage in fraudulent activities related to equity transactions and balances, leading to incorrect reporting.
- Lack of internal controls: Companies may not have adequate internal controls in place to prevent errors and fraud related to equity transactions and balances.
In auditing equity transactions and balances, auditors need to make several audit assertions to provide assurance to stakeholders that equity transactions are recorded and reported accurately.
Some of these audit assertions include:
- Completeness: All equity transactions have been recorded and reported.
- Accuracy: Equity transactions have been recorded and reported accurately and in accordance with GAAP or IFRS guidelines.
- Valuation: Equity transactions have been recorded and reported at fair value.
- Classification: Equity transactions have been recorded and reported in the correct account and in accordance with GAAP or IFRS guidelines.
- Occurrence: Equity transactions have taken place and are genuine.
- Rights and Obligations: The company holds the rights and obligations related to equity transactions.
- Presentation and Disclosure: Equity transactions and balances have been presented and disclosed correctly in the financial statements.
Walkthrough testing is a type of audit procedure where auditors walk through the accounting process for equity transactions to assess the design and operating effectiveness of internal controls. This includes reviewing the process for recording and reporting equity transactions, as well as reviewing documentation and controls related to equity transactions.
Test of control:
Test of control is a type of audit procedure performed by auditors to assess the effectiveness of a company’s internal control system. The purpose of this test is to determine whether the internal controls are functioning as intended and provide reasonable assurance that financial transactions are recorded accurately, financial statements are presented fairly, and assets are safeguarded. The following are the key steps in the test of control:
- Identification of internal controls: The auditor must first identify the internal control activities relevant to the audit objectives. This involves a review of the company’s policies and procedures manual, process flowcharts, and other relevant documentation.
- Assessment of control risk: The auditor assesses the risk of material misstatement associated with each control. This involves evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of the controls.
- Planning the audit: Based on the assessment of control risk, the auditor will plan the audit procedures that are necessary to obtain sufficient evidence to support the audit opinion.
- Testing the controls: The auditor performs a detailed test of the controls identified during the assessment phase to determine whether they are functioning effectively. This may involve observation of the control process, examination of supporting documentation, and inquiry of employees responsible for the control.
- Evaluation of control results: Based on the results of the control testing, the auditor must evaluate whether the internal control system provides reasonable assurance that financial transactions are recorded accurately and that financial statements are presented fairly.
- Determining further audit procedures: Based on the evaluation of control results, the auditor may need to perform additional audit procedures to obtain sufficient evidence to support the audit opinion. This may involve substantive tests of transactions or accounts, or the performance of additional tests of controls.
Overall, the test of control is an essential step in the audit process and helps the auditor to obtain evidence that the internal controls are functioning effectively, which in turn helps to reduce the risk of material misstatement in the financial statements.
Substantive Audit Procedures
Substantive audit procedures are the procedures performed by auditors to obtain evidence about the financial statements to support their audit opinions.
These procedures are designed to identify material misstatements in the financial statements, which may arise from errors, fraud or other irregularities. In auditing the equity section, the following substantive audit procedures may be performed:
- Understanding the client’s equity structure, including the types of equity instruments, number of shares authorized, outstanding and issued.
- Obtaining a thorough understanding of the client’s equity transactions, including equity issuances, purchases, cancellations and share-based compensation.
- Testing the accuracy of the calculation of earnings per share (EPS), including both basic and diluted EPS.
- Reviewing the client’s stock option plans, including the terms, conditions and grant dates, to determine that they are consistent with the equity transactions recorded in the financial statements.
- Testing the accuracy of the computation of fair value of share-based compensation, including the use of appropriate valuation models and assumptions.
- Reviewing the client’s treasury stock transactions to ensure that they are properly recorded, including purchases and sales of treasury stock.
- Performing audit procedures to verify the accuracy of the client’s equity rollforward, including the opening and closing balances, and the proper accounting for all equity transactions.
- Examining the client’s shareholder meetings, minutes and voting records to determine the accuracy of the equity transactions recorded in the financial statements.
- Performing audit procedures to test the client’s compliance with relevant securities laws and regulations, including insider trading and disclosure requirements.
- Performing substantive audit procedures on related party transactions, to ensure that they are properly recorded and disclosed in the financial statements.
These substantive audit procedures are not exhaustive, and the auditor may perform additional procedures based on their judgment and the specific circumstances of the audit engagement. The objective is to obtain sufficient and appropriate evidence to support the auditor’s opinion on the fairness of the equity section of the financial statements.